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Heat Management

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Friction Reduction

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Friction Reduction Coatings
 
HPC offers a multitude of Solid Dry Film coatings specifically engineered to your coating requirements.  For applications requiring a reduced coefficient of friction, as well as non-stick, chemical resistance and food processing in various environments, the S-Series has the solutions to your needs.  Several of HPC's S-Series coatings are OEM specified.
 
Performance Engine Coatings

Pistons and Valves

HPC offers two coatings for pistons and valves that can be used together or separately of each other based on needs and some class regulations in racing.  HPC's thermal barrier coating (TBC) is applied to the combustion face of the piston and a wettable solid dry film (SDF) applied to the skirt.

Probably no part of an engine undergoes greater thermal shock than pistons and valves.  Yet this has no effect on the bonding properties of HPC's TBC which has the same coefficient of expansion as aluminum. Particulates are bonded with an inorganic binder which is unaffected by petroleum products.  With a bond strength of 10,000 psi, this coating's non-porous cermet (ceramic & metallic) matrix improves flame travel and combustion efficiency as well as reduces oil temperature and prevents carbon buildup.  HPC's TBC process also prevents excessive heat from reaching the piston rings reducing radial tension loss due to the ring overheating.  Thermal barrier coating is applied to the combustion face of the valve air fuel mixture prevents overheating of the exhaust valve and heat transfer from the intake valve to incoming cool air and fuel, thus providing a denser air/fuel charge.  The process works equally well on both two-cycle and four-cycle pistons, and is applicable to new and used parts.

Our HPC S01K is a solid dry film lubricant that is applied to the skirts of the piston to reduce friction and prevent scuffing.  This wettable matrix coating is a Molybdenum Disulfide based coating rather than PTFE.  Moly is a higher pressure lubricant and does not "cold flow" under pressures exceeding 150,000 psi.  Moly also attracts oil, keeping an adequate film on the part unlike PTFE which sheds oil. HPC S01K reduces piston to cylinder wall friction by over 10-times!

HPC S-Series' lubricants are suspended in a thermosetting polymer binder which hardens during curing providing a permanent dry lubricant unlike break-in Moly, graphite, and other sprays or lubes.

Engine bearings, rocker arms, valve stems, camshafts, gear drives, transmission and differential gears, and other "wet" components are other excellent applications for HPC's S06 coating.

Valve Springs

A valve spring's biggest enemy is heat.  Heat is generated in the spring from three sources.  First by cycling the spring through compression and extension.  For example, try bending a paper clip back and forth, you will feel it get hot at the flex point. Second is heat generated by the friction between the coils on double and triple springs or the spring and the dampener.  Third is heat absorbed by the spring from the cylinder head, especially the exhaust spring being right over the exhaust port.  Cooling is achieved from oil being splashed over the spring by the rocker arms. 

Many coatings have been used on valve springs. Most are PTFE based coatings, and this is fine for reducing friction between coils and dampeners, but oil will be shed by the PTFE eliminating any cooling the spring may see.  Our S01 Solid Dry Film Lubricant coating is the answer.  S01 not only acts as a superior high pressure lubricant but also attracts oil like steel to a magnet.  Valve springs coated with S01 can retain their seat pressure up to three times longer than uncoated valve springs. 

Many camshaft manufacturers now offer coated valve springs in their line-up (we should know, we coat many of them).  But usually only their most radical springs for all out competition are coated.  However, street driven cars see just as much benefit.  By performance standards, a valve spring on a daily driven car is worn out by 40,000 miles.  At this point even though the motor runs fine it will be down on peak horsepower and RPM capability due to the spring's loss of tension.  Remember, it is the cams job to open the valve but the valve spring's job to close it at the right time.  S01 is an excellent choice for any motor being built and is very affordable.

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Other S01 Applications:

  • Stamped steel and ductile iron rocker arms

  • Rod and main bearings

  • Rocker shafts

  • Oil pumps

  • Manual transmission gears

  • Ring and pinion gears

  • Gear drives

Oil Shedding Coatings

For those applications where you want a coating that sheds oil and other petroleum liquids, rather than retaining it, HPC has developed the solid dry film coating, S02. A major component of this coating is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).  This process works well in eliminating exfoliation/corrosion and oxidation on zinc, aluminum, and magnesium. S02 can be applied directly over more conventional pretreatments such as anodizing, phosphating, and electroplating.  It is a black-pigmented coating with temperature stabilities from -100° F (-79° C) to +700° F (371° C). 

 

S02 Applications:

  • Inside oil pans

  • Windage trays

  • Blower rotors

  • Inside valve covers

 
Crate Motor Test


Scope

To determine performance gains in the areas of horsepower and torque and from HPC Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) and Solid Dry Film Lubricants.


Test Description

Street Rodder Magazine (Primemedia, August 2000) used a new GM 350 cubic inch 300 horsepower "crate motor" to determine performance gains using HPC coatings. A Holley intake manifold and 750 CFM vacuum secondary carburetor was used for testing. The baseline dynamometer test was done at Pro Machine of Placentia, California. No adjustments were made to the carburetor or ignition advance curve to optimize the engine, however the engine produced a near perfect averaged air/fuel ratio of 12.17:1 throughout the RPM range.


The engine was then disassembled and selected parts were sent to HPC for coating. The pistons and valves were coated with HPC TBC and S01 coatings. Valve springs, rocker arms and balls, oil pump gears, connecting rod and main bearings were coated with S01. The inside of the valve covers and oil pan as well as well as both sides of the windage tray were coated with S02 to reduce windage and promote oil flow back to the sump area.

The parts were then returned to Pro Machine for reassembly and due to scheduling conflicts dynamometer testing was done at Dyno-Motive, also of Placentia, California. Again, no adjustments were made to the carburetor jetting or ignition advance curve to optimize the engine.


Summary

The HPC coated engine produced 11.8 (5%) more horsepower and 15.5 lb/ft (5%) more torque at 4000 RPM. Even more remarkable was a 13% increase in volumetric efficiency (VE) from 90% to 103% and a 9% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) from 0.558 lb/HPhr to 0.508 lb/HPhr. Because of this increase in thermal efficiency the engine "leaned out" an average of 12% (13.62:1air/fuel ratio), showing that further work with carburetor jetting and ignition advance would yield even bigger gains in horsepower and torque, especially in peak figures.


Valve Spring Performance Technical Report

Subject: Increases in Valve Spring Performance from HPC S01 Coating

 

Scope:

To determine the reduction in valve spring temperature and pressure losses when coated with HPC S01 solid dry film lubricant.

Test Description:

High Performance Coatings, Inc. (HPC) and Air Flow Research (AFR) built a spin fixture to test and evaluate new valve springs in a controlled environment over a measured period of time. The spin machine consisted of a small block Chevrolet engine driven at the camshaft by an electric motor. The pistons were removed and the timing chain was not installed so that only the valvetrain rotated. The oiling system remained fully functional. Pulley sizes were selected for the camshaft and electric motor so that the engine could be spun to 10,000 RPM for extended periods of time.

Eight AFR triple valve springs for roller tappet cams were coated by HPC with S01 and eight were left uncoated as a control group. Before installation of the valve springs on the cylinder heads pressure was measured at various compressed heights. The springs were then installed on the cylinder heads with a special spring shim thermocouple was installed at the base of the valve springs to measure spring temperature. After cycling the springs were removed and tested again for their height-load relationship to determine loss of tension as a result of use.

Results:

After 90 minutes at 6,500 RPM (300,000 open-and-close cycles) the coated valve springs had lost a maximum of only 3.5% of their original tension. The uncoated valve springs averaged a 15% loss in tension. Temperature of the coated springs was 190° F compared to the uncoated springs 210° F. A reduction of 11%. Oil temperature maintained a steady state of 180° F throughout the test.

These results are due to two benefits of HPC S01 coating. First is the reduction in heat producing friction between the inner and outer coils. Second is S01's ability to attract oil like steel to a magnet, keeping a continuous film of oil on the spring to further reduce friction and draw heat away from the spring.

Many professional NHRA and NASCAR race teams report their HPC S01 coated valve springs last up to three times longer than uncoated springs.

S01: Wettable Matrix Coating
This inorganic single-bonded dry film contains a matrix selected to increase the lubricity and load-bearing capability when subjected to high pressure and mid-range temperatures.  It provides excellent wear properties while reducing friction loads. In applications where solutions such as petroleum products are to be retained rather than shed, this process will increase the life of the components by helping to eliminate fretting, galling and seizure.  A variety of colors are available. 
Operating temperature: -100°F to +600° F (-73° C to +315° C.). Results depend on environment & chemical exposure. Will soften at elevated temperatures.
 
S02: Non-Wettable Matrix Coating
Designed with PTFE, S02 provides outstanding chemical corrosion protection on ferrous and non-ferrous materials.  Dissimilar metal corrosion between tightly compressed components will be greatly reduced after being treated with S02.  Its non-wettable properties allow solutions to glide across the substrates rather than being absorbed and attack the substrate.  It's available in a variety of colors with operating temperatures up to 600° F (315° C).
 
S04: Non-Stick and Mold Release Coating

Mold release coatings are formulated with a thermoplastic resin, which adheres to metal components. It enhances the durability characteristics, while achieving an excellent non-stick coating. In conjunction with the release properties, the coatings exhibit exceptional resistance to many chemicals. Components coated with HPC S04 release coatings achieve as much as four times the life from a single application.

Parts may be new or used. Application may be made to parts which have previously been coated to increase the life of the part.

S04 coatings are recommended for use on, but not limited to, plastic molds, extrusion equipment, sealing bars (used in melting plastic film in packaging operations), and valves or processing equipment which require good chemical resistance, elevated temperatures and excellent release properties.

The coating is post-formable, can withstand up to 30% elongation and can operate at continuous temperatures of 400° F (200° C) with intermittent temperatures reaching 480° F (250° C). Results depend on environment & chemical exposure. Will soften at elevated temperaturess.

 
S05: Non-Wettable Matrix Coating
HPC S05 is a very highly bonded resin with PTFE as a lubricant. S05 is recommended in high-speed applications where a harder surface coating is required for increased durability. S05 has shown excellent resistance to chemicals and corrosive agents.
 
S09: FDA Coating
This coating is similar to S02, however PTFE to bonding resin ratios have been altered to produce a coating which is harder, more abrasion resistant, glossier and less porous.  Release properties remain very good and chemical and UV resistance is exceptional. S09 is available in a variety of colors.
 
Food Grade Non-Stick Coatings

Engineered for non-stick (release) with outstanding corrosion and abrasion resistance under load with an operating temperature of 600° F (315° C), this family of coatings offer outstanding results on cookie stamps, candy molds, cooking sheets, pots and pans, grill surfaces as well as many other food processing, hardware and medical (non-implant) equipment.

 
       
 
For more information E-mail our Tech Department or call us at 1-800-456-4721.